Tuesday, 18 March 2008

T ~ is for Tilling

Table  ~ See Kitchen table

Tableaux ~ favourite entertainment at Lucia's soirees in Riseholme including Brunhilde, the execution of Mary Queen of Scots and King Cophetua and the beggar maid. The quality of performance, stage management and dramatic tension of these presentations were, to say the least, variable. Tableaux were usually described as impromptu - but never really were.   
Talc  ~  despite working six or eight hours a day since dismissing her gardener Simkinson, Daisy Quantock had not found time to touch a stone of her proposed rockery, "and the fragments lying like a moraine on the path by the potting shed still rendered any approach to the latter a mountaineering feat. They consisted of fragments of medieval masonry, from the site of the ancient abbey, finials and crockets and pieces of mullioned windows which had been turned up when a new siding of the railway had been made and everyone almost had got some, with the exception of Mrs Boucher, who called them rubbish. Then there were some fossils, ammonites and spar and curious flints with holes in them and bits of talc...."   
Talc is a white, grey, brown or pale green mineral, found in metamorphic rocks, composed of hydrated magnesium silicate, Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. Although talc is used in the manufacture of talcum powder and electrical insulators  it is not clear for what purpose bits of it were collected by the inhabitants of Riseholme.   
Taormina ~ modest home in Tilling of resident artist and bohemian, Quaint Irene Coles

Tar Pot ~ see Fire Pot   
Tchekov ~  during the interval after the first Act of a "gloomy play of Tchekov" in an unspecified London theatre, a short but significant "little colloquy" took place in the box of Adele Brixton that was really the foundation of the secret society of Luciaphils, and the membership of the Luciaphils began swiftly to increase. Those present at this inaugural conclave with Lady Brixton were Tony Limpsfield and Aggie Sandeman.

Physician and writer Anton Pavlovich Chekov (1860-1904)  was acclaimed for his short stories and as a dramatist for four classic plays: "The Seagull", "Uncle Vanya", "The Three Sisters" and "The Cherry Orchard." We do not know which play was being performed that evening, but since critics often refer to the challenge to both actors and audience posed by Chekov's relentless emphasis on mood and "submerged life in the text" rather than conventional action, it seems likely that the adjective "gloomy" was not used  inaccurately or unreasonably. Of her Tchekovian experience, Lucia herself spoke of "such a strange unhappy atmosphere" and coming out feeling as if "in some remote dream."   See Luciaphils.    
Tea  ~ tea, followed by a bridge party was, in summer, the chief manifestation of the spirit of hospitality in Tilling. Voluptuous teas were the rule, after which you really wanted no more than little bits of things, a cup of soup, a slice of cold tart, or a dished-up piece of fish and some toasted cheese. Then, after the excitement of bridge (and bridge was very exiting in Tilling) a jig-saw puzzle or Patience cooled your brain and composed your nerves.  See Dinner.   
Teacher's robe ~ particularly becoming dress of white linen in which Lucia habited herself to give yoga instruction to her less-advanced neighbours in Riseholme. It reached to her feet and had full-flowing sleeves like a surplice. The girdle of it was a silver cord with long tassels and it had mother-of-pearl buttons and a hood at the back, lined with white satin, which came over her head. Lucia's teacher's robe was worn with white Moroccan slippers

Teeth ~ whilst not exactly advertising the issue, Lucia made no attempt to hide the fact that she wore a dental plate. Elizabeth Mapp-Flint on the other hand concealed her need for false teeth, blaming her closed mouth upon a relaxed throat.

Their common bond of need for dental artifice emerged when a denture unmistakably Elizabeth's was delivered in error to Lucia at Mallards. Magnanimously, Lucia resisted the temptation urged upon her by Georgie to forward the item to Mrs Mapp-Flint with an appropriate note.

Towards the end  of "Mapp and Lucia" the reader is made aware that Major Benjy wore false teeth, since it is vouchsafed that with all the rest of his personal property, thrown out of "Mallards" by the vengeful returning Elizabeth Mapp, was "his dental plate - thank God - ...on the second step, all by itself, gleaming in the sun, and seeming to grin at him in a very mocking manner."

Telephone  ~ like the listening-in or wireless, modern devices such as the telephone were not comfortably accepted by all in Riseholme and Tilling. 

Algernon Wyse, for example, clearly stated that he considered the telephone an undignified instrument only fit to be used for household purposes, and had installed his in the kitchen, in the manner of the Wyses of Whitchurch.. That alone, apart from Mr Wyse's old-fashioned notions on the subject, made telephoning impossible, for your summons was usually answered by his cook, who instantly began scolding the butcher irrespective and disrespectful of whom you were. When her mistake was made known to her, she never apologized, but grudgingly said she would call Mr Figgis, who was Mr Wyse's valet. Mr Figgis always took a long time in coming, and when he came he sneezed or did something disagreeable and said 'Yes, what is it?'  in a very testy manner. After explanations he would consent to tell his master, which took another long time, and even then Mr Wyse did not come himself and usually refused the proffered invitation.  Miss Mapp had tried the expedient of sending Withers to the telephone when she wanted to get at Mr Wyse's, but this had not succeeded for Withers and Mr Wyse's cook quarrelled so violently before they got to business that Mr Figgis had to calm the cook and Withers to complain to Miss Mapp...This in brief , was the general reason why Tilling sent notes to Mr Wyse. As for chatting through the telephone, which was the main use of telephones, the thing was quite out  of the question.  See trunk calls.    
"Tendencies of Modern Fiction"  ~ when Lucia had returned to Tilling after her ordeal in being swept out to sea with Elizabeth Mapp on a kitchen table and spending the next three months with a fleet of cod-fishers on the Gallagher Bank, she occupied herself with a plethora of activities including music, art, bridge, hospital- visiting and classical literature.  Lucia had also given a lecture on the "Tendencies of Modern Fiction" at the Literary Institute. She had suggested another on the "Age of Pericles", not yet delivered, as, most unaccountably, a suitable date could not be arranged...     
Tennyson, Alfred Lord  ~ after the Bible and Shakespeare, the work most often quoted throughout the Mapp and Lucia canon would appear to be that of the Victorian Poet Laureate and successor in 1850  to William Wordsworth, Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson  (1809-1892). Poems from which quotations are taken by Benson include "In Memoriam AHH", "Maud" and "Crossing the Bar."        
Tennyson wrote in several styles, including short lyrics such as "Crossing the Bar" and "Tears, Idle Tears" and blank verse, including "Idylls of the King". A significant part of his work addressed patriotic themes, such as "Charge of the Light Brigade" and also classical and mythological subjects, exemplified by "Ulysses and "Tithonus." Perhaps less successfully, he also wrote several plays, including the poetic dramas "Queen Mary" an "Harold." Ninth in the order of most frequently quoted authors in the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, many of Tennyson's phrases have become commonplace and in this vein are cited in Benson's work, as in "Tis better to have loved and lost, than never to have loved at all."  See Maud", "And may there be no sadness of farewell, when I embark" ,"Long unlovely streets" and "It may be better to have loved and lost..." 
Terling, Miss ~ mentioned once by Diva Plaistow to Elizabeth Mapp. A resident of Tilling reportedly guilty of a double revoke at bridge. Never heard of again.

"Terrible as an army with banners"  ~  when it emerged that the Guru was a fraud, a bibulous curry cook known to Hemry and Ursy Pillson from the Calcutta Restaurant in Bedford Street in London, the advanced class was very perturbed. Daisy Quantock's "passion, like Hyperion's lifted her upon her feet, and she stood there defying the whole of the advanced class, short and stout and wholly ridiculous, but with some revolutionary menace about her. She was not exactly "terrible as an army with banners," but she was terrible as an elderly lady with a long-standing grievance which had been accentuated  by the loss of a Georgian tankard, and that was terrible enought o make Lucia adopt a conciliatory attitude."

As ever with Benson, this is a quote from the King James Bible: Song Of Solomon (Canticles) Chapter 6: 4~10:

4. Thou art beautiful, O my love, as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem, terrible as an army with banners.
5 Turn away thine eyes from me, for they have overcome me: thy hair is as a flock of goats that appear from Gilead.
6 Thy teeth are as a flock of sheep which go up from the washing, whereof every one beareth twins, and there is not one barren among them.
7 As a piece of a pomegranate are thy temples within thy locks.
8 There are threescore queens, and fourscore concubines, and virgins without number.
9 My dove, my undefiled is but one; she is the only one of her mother, she is the choice one of her that bare her. The daughters saw her, and blessed her; yea, the queens and the concubines, and they praised her.
10 Who is she that looketh forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners?  
Terry, Ellen  ~  Over a plain supper, Lucia was discussing with Georgie Pillson the lecture she had just delivered at the Literary Institute in Tilling on the Technique of the Shakespearean Stage in which she had performed Lady Macbeth's sleepwalking scene.  Lucia remarked, "And in the speech, I think I got, didn't I, that veiled timbre in my voice suggestive of the unconscious  physical mechanism, sinking to a strangled whisper at "Out damned spot!' That, I expect was not quite original for I now remember when I was quite a child being taken to see Ellen Terry in the part and she veiled her voice like that. A subconscious impression coming to the surface."

Born into a dynasty of actors, which included John Gielgud, Dame Ellen Terry (1847-1928) was perhaps the leading Shakespearean actress of her time. In a career spanning nearly seven decades, Ellen Terry appeared in Shakepeare - notably Portia in the Merchant of Venice and Beatrice in Much Ado About Nothing - Shaw and Ibsen. She managed the Imperial Theatre and continued to perform to great acclaim, tour, lecture and appear in films.  Ellen Terry appeared as Lady Macbeth  in "Macbeth" in 1888, in a production featuring incidental music by Arthur Sullivan.     
If Lucia was aged, say 53, during "Trouble for Lucia" and, say five years had elapsed since she and Elizabeth were swept out to sea on Boxing Day 1930, so the date was 1935, Lucia would have been aged only six years when seeing Ellen Terry perform as Lady Macbeth. If  "Trouble for Lucia" is set a few years later, the timing is more plausible, although Lucia was no doubt in any event advanced for her years even as a child.   See "Out, damned spot!"

Tessellated pavement ~ Lucia was explaining to Georgie her plans to make "Mallards" the centre of a new artistic and intellectual life in Tilling. She suspected that there were the remains of a Roman temple or villa stretching out into the kitchen garden and proposed to lay bare the place, even if it meant scrapping the asparagus bed. Lucia also commented "very likely I shall find a tessellated pavement or two."    

In addition to being a mosaic-like flooring and tiled Roman path of the kind found at Richborough, a tessellated pavement is a rare sedimentary rock formation lying on some ocean shores, so named because it fractures into polygonal blocks that resemble tiles or tessellations. It is formed when rock that has cracked through plate tectonic movement of the earth's crust is modified by sand and wave action.

We should not be surprised at such learned references since Fred gained his Tripos in Archaeology and an Open Scholarship at King's College, Cambridge. After this, he undertook six weeks of field work in Chester including excavations seeking Roman tombstones as evidence that the presence there of the legion. Fred was invited to Hawarden to expatiate on his findings to family friend William Gladstone.  Later Fred studied at the British School of Archaeology in Athens and led the excavations at Megalopolis. In 1895 he produced two learned papers for the "Journal of Hellenic Studies" which were well-received and republished as pamphlets. He also joined his sister Maggie in Egypt to carry out archaeological work for the Egyptian Exploration Fund.    
It might also be noted thast when Lucia returend her late stuffed pet to Lady Ambermere at Ambermere Hall, "her chauffeur  had depisited the large brown paper parcel wih Pug inside on the much admired tessellated pavement."    
"Thank God, I live on a hill"  ~ on the evening of Boxing Day 1930, after Lucia and Elizabeth Mapp had been swept out to sea on an upturned kitchen table from "Grebe", their friends gathered for an informal supper at "Starling Cottage" to support each other and await any news. They discussed the detail of what had transpired that day, including who said what when the table was last in earshot.  George commented, "To begin with , I'm sure Lucia didn't think she was facing death and even if she did, she'ds still have been terribly interested  in life till she went phut."

At that point major Benjy, thinking as usuak of himself  exclaimed, "Thank God I live on a hill!"      
"That"  ~ when  Lucia and Diva were discussing the "real change" in the behaviour of Elizabeth Mapp-Flint since her marriage, they both seemed to come upon a terrifying idea as to what might be happening." Lucia broke off,  for a prodigious idea as to what might be in Diva's mind had  flashed upon her.     
'Tell me what you mean,' she said, boring with her eyes into the very centre of Diva's secret soul, 'Not - not that?'   
Diva nodded her head eight times with increasing emphasis.   
'Yes, that' she said."   
Diva and Lucia went on to discuss Elizabeths age (of 43) and the recent talk of Twilight Sleep. Thus it came to pass that Tilling was acquainted with the possibility that Mrs Elizabeth Mapp-Flint might be in a delicate condition. Relishing the attention and consideration that this brought her, Elizabeth did nothing whatesoever to prevent this misapprehension gaining common currency in the town - and indeed massaged it by letting out her favourite green skirt - until, with the passage of time, the deception necessarily could be sustained no longer.     See Twilight Sleep
"That Hole"  ~  following the gala performance of "Lucrezia" at Covent Garden, Georgie could not sleep owing to recurrent  visions of the divine Olga Bracely. He thought, "I believe I've got a very passionate nature, but I've always crushed it."   
He lit a cigarette and paced up and down or sat in bed as he reviewed Life. He said to himself,  "I know Tilling is very exciting for extraordinary things are always happening, and I'm very comfortable there. But I've no independence. I'm devoted to Lucia...how exasperating she is as Mayor! What with her ceaseless jaw about her duties an position, I get fed up. Those tin boxes with nothing in them!  Mrs Simpson every morning with nothing to do! I want a change. Sometimes I almost sympathise with Elizabeth when Lucia goes rolling along like the car of Juggernaut, squish-squash, whoever comes in her way. And yet it's she, I really believe, who makes things happen just because she is Lucia, and I don't know where we should be without her...I shall be fit for nothing tomorrow, lying awake like this, and I must go shopping in the morning, and then we lunch with Olga, and catch the afternoon train back to That Hole."  

It appears that Georgie felt better in the morning after two cups of tea brought to him by Foljambe.  There does not seem to be another occasion on which Georgie Pillson is recorded as referring to Tilling as "That Hole."   
"That Mapp"  ~  when Lucia was planning how to avoid being found-out as incompetent in la bella lingua, during the impending vist of Algernon Wyse's sister, Amelia, Contessa di Faraglione, she was most concerned about the suspicions of Elizabeth Mapp.  Lucia, "did not , of course, credit  'that Mapp' with having procured the visit of the Faraglione, but a child could see that if she herself met the Faraglione during her stay, here the grimmest exposure of her igorance of the language she talked in such admired snippets must inevitably follow. 'That Map' would pounce on this, and it was idle to deny that she would score heavily and horribly." 
Theocritus ~ see "Idylls" of Theocritus.

Theophrastus ~ Lucia and Georgie were dining a deux after their guests at "Mallards House" had left after the floods had receded. They discussed the covert attempts of Major Benjy to obtain alcohol despite the disapproval of his new, if not young, wife.

Lucia remarked that he was "An interesting study. You know how devoted I am to psychological research, and I learned a great deal in the last fortnight. Major Benjy was not very clever when he wooed and won her, but I think marriage has sharpened his wits. Little bits of foxiness, little evasions, nothing, of course, of very high order, but some inkling of ingenuity and contrivance. I can understand a man developing a certain acuteness if he knew Elizabeth was always just around the corner. The instinct of self protection. There is a character in Theophrastus very like him: I must look it up"

Known mainly as The Father of Botany, Theophrastus (c371 - c287BC) was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic School, which he presided over successfully for 36 years. He studied under Plato and Aristotle and his wide-ranging interests extended from biology and physics to ethics and metaphysics. He conceived the study of character and in "The Characters" (c319BC) he introduced the "character sketch" of 30 character types, each said to illustrate an individual who represents a group characterised by his most prominent trait. One cannot say with certainty which of the Theophrastan types, Lucia felt Major Benjy most resembled but they are listed in English below to enable readers of this glossary to hazard a guess, should they be so minded:

Insincere, Flatterer, Garrulous, Boor, Compliant, Without Moral Feeling, Talkative, Fabricator, Shamelessly Greedy, Penny-pincher, Offensive, Hapless, Officious, Absent-minded, Unsociable, Superstitious, Faultfinder, Suspicious, Repulsive, Unpleasant, Of Petty Ambition, Stingy, Show-off, Arrogant, Coward, Oligarchical, Late Learner, Slanderer, Lover of Bad Company and Basely Covetous.         
"There comes a tide in the affairs of men"  ~    More than a year after the death of her husband, Lucia had been talking to Georgie Pillson of how she felt she was coming alive again.  She now felt less interested in the Elizabethan Age which with all its greatness and splendour she suggested had a certain coarseness and crudeness. Lucia now had new enthusiasms for the age of Pericles and the classical Greek authors and the Age of Anne. She concluded, "No one reveres it more than I, but it is a mistake to remain in the same waters too long.  There comes a tide in the affairs of men, which, if you don't nip it in the bud, leads on to boredom."  
Georgie thought this apercu brilliant. It was however not quite impromptu, for Lucia had thought  of it in her bath. But it would be meticulous to explain that.

The same quotation is revisited again later, when Lucia had returned to Tilling after her  triumph as producer, director and Elizabeth I in the pageant in Riseholme and was sitting next morning after breakfast at the window of the garden-room in Miss Mapp's house. It was a magic casement to anyone who was interested in life, as Lucia certainly was, and there was a tide every morning in the affairs of Tilling which must be taken in the flood...  
The lines so wittily appropriated and expanded upon, are spoken by Brutus in Act IV scene iii of Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar":    
"There is a tide in the affairs of men   
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in miseries.
On such a full sea are we now afloat;
And we must take the current when it serves,
Or lose our ventures."          
See Calmness of despair    
Thermogene ~ when Elizabeth Mapp had been involved in the unfortunate contretemps with the inebriated Captain Puffin and Major Flint in the street outside "Mallards" on a cold and foggy night, she returned home angry, humiliated and with her teeth chattering. Drinking her cocoa, she was further upset to read an amorous letter from fishmonger and part-time model, Mr Hopkins to her parlour maid Withers.

This upsetting missive acted as a counter-irritant. Metaphorically Mr Hopkins was thermogene to Miss Mapp's outraged and aching consciousness, and the smart occasioned by the knowledge that Withers must have encouraged Mr Hopkins and thus be contemplating matrimony, relieved the aching humiliation of her confrontation in the sea mist. Thermogene was a proprietary cure for rheumatism and colds. When sold as wadding, it was impregnated with capsicum or chili to irritate the skin and promote warmth and methylsalicylate or artificial oil of wintergreen as a pain-killer.

"Thesmophoriazusae" ~ play by Aristophanes. See Aristophanes and wind egg.

"They were lovely and pleasant in their lives and in their death they were not divided"  ~  when Lucia and  Miss Mapp had been lost at sea for some time, a memorial service was held in Tilling Church with Major Benjy and Georgie Pillson sitting by themselves in the front pew as chief mourners, since they were the contingent heirs of the defunct ladies.

The Padre gave a most touching address on the text "They were lovely and pleasant in their lives and in their death they were not divided". He reminded his hearers how the two they mourned were as sisters, taking the lead in social activities and dispensing to all who knew them their bountiful hospitalities. Their lives had been full of lovable energy. They had been at the forefront in all artistic and literary pursuits: indeed he might almost have taken the whole of the verse which he had read them  only the half as his text, and have added that they were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions. One of them had been known to them all for many years, and the name of Elizabeth Mapp was written on their hearts. The other was a newcomer, but she had wonderfully endeared herself to them in her brief sojourn here, and it was typical of her beautiful nature that on the very day on which the disaster occurred she had been busy with a Christmas tree for the choristers in whom she took so profound an interest.  

The sermon, at the request of a few friends, was printed in the Parish Magazine and widely circulated.   
The text in question concerns not Lucia and Elizabeth but Saul and Jonathan and was taken from 2 Samuel 1 verse 23:  Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their lives, and in their deaths they were not divided: they were swifter than eagles , they were stronger than lions.     
It is interesting to consider how many of those hearing or reading the Padre's sermon had ever actually considered particularly Elizabeth Mapp to be either "lovely" or "pleasant," in her life or otherwise, although her speed or strength might have been open to less debate.  
"Thinketh no evil, you know! Charity!"  ~ after literally "clashing" on two occasions very publicly in their identical tea gowns in kingfisher blue and then crimson lake, the ever-practical Elizabeth Map and Diva Plaistow  reached agreement by which Diva would again  dye her dress (which had in any event been badly stained with chocolate). During a typically difficult conversation, Elizabeth accused Diva of putting the worst construction on everything and suggested that she be more generous. In response Diva said "Ho!" with a world of meaning and Elizabeth replied, "I don't know what you intend to convey by 'ho' and I shan't try to guess. But be kinder, darling,  and it will make you happier. Thinketh no evil, you know! Charity!"   
Here Benson quotes from St Paul in 1 Corinthians 13:5 regarding Charity "Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up,  Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil."   Suffice it to say that, unlike Benson, his creation Miss Mapp appears to have had little sense of irony and even less self-knowledge.  
Thomas ~ delivery boy of Mr Cannick the grocer in Tilling.

"Thy kingdom is divided"  ~  Lucia was more than a little discommoded to learn that Olga Bracely had acquired a permanent home at Old Place in Riseholme and, privately, her thoughts turned immediately to the possible damage to her own social dominance. She thought of Belshazzar's Feast and the writing of doom on the wall which she was Daniel enough to interpret herself, "Thy kingdom is divided,"it said "and given to the Bracely's or the Shuttleworths."

Described in the book of Daniel, the Babylonian king Belshazzar profaned the sacred vessels of the enslaved Israelites. As prophesied by the writing on the wall and interpreted by Daniel, Belshazzar was killed and succeeded by Darius the Mede.     The original phrase "Thy kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians" is taken from Daniel 5:28. This verse is part of Daniel’s interpretation of the famous “handwriting on the wall”. In the Aramaic language the word peres can mean both divided and Persia. Daniel used both meanings to decipher the handwriting, predicting that Babylon would be divided and given to the Medes and Persians who were camped outside the city.

To Lucia, Olga's new ways including romps, the gramophone and cigarettes threatened her previously unchallenged dominance in the village . See Belshazzar's Feast

Tiffin ~ when Georgie Pillson came upon Lucia with the Guru, she introduced them  "I want to introduce to you, Guru," she said, without a stumble, " a great friend of mine. This is Mr Pillson, Guru. Guru, Mr Pillson.  The Guru is coming to tiffin with me, Georgie. Cannot I persuade you to stop?"     
Originating in British India and perhaps derived from the obsolete English slang "tiffing", for taking a sip or small drink, tiffin is lunch or any light meal. It appears the word came into use when the custom in India superceded the British practice of afternoon tea, leading to a new word for the afternoon meal.

In Mumbai, "tiffin" refers usually to a lunch, often sent via tiffin-wallahs, who make complex arrangements to deliver large numbers of tiffin boxes to the correct recipient at work or school. At "The Hurst" in Riseholme that day it appears tiffin meant luncheon, though on this occasion the menu was not specified.

Given his lengthy service in India, Major Benjy naturally referred to lunch as "tiffin" - as well as calling his parlour maid with the ejaculation "Qui-hi."  Quaint Irene Coles satirised Major Benjy somewhat - in absentia - when jokingly inviting Miss Mapp to share the lobster in her shopping basket, "Come and have tiffin, qui -hi , I've got to look after myself today."       
"Tiger, tiger, burning bright."  ~ see Blake.

Tilbury     ~  the Elizabethan  pageant in Riseholme featured the speech by Queen Elizabeth to her troops at Tilbury.  Daisy Quantock, who was later substituted as the Queen by Lucia and demoted to Drake's wife, explained, "A large board, you know, with Tilbury written on it. That's quite Shakespearean in style. "          
In the borough of Thurrock in Essex, the name "Tilbury" is derived from the Saxon "burgh", a fortified place, either "belonging to Tila" or perhaps "a lowland place."  In the eighth century it was referred to as "Tilaburg" and in Domesday as "Tilberia."  There is archaeological evidence of Roman occupation. On 9th August 1588, Queen Elizabeth reviewed her troops in the village of West Tilbury in preparation for the invasion expected from the Spanish Armada. Various versions of the speech exist, but well-known lines include,"I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman;but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain,or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm."

Tilling ~ there is not in all England a town so blatantly picturesque as Tilling, nor one for the lover of level marsh land, of tall reedy dykes, of enormous sunsets and rims of blue sea on the horizon, with so fortunate an environment.

Situated on higher ground above the marshy lands towards the coast, the ancient and enlightened town of Tilling boasted cobbled streets, a Norman church with a tower, fine Georgian and Queen Anne houses, some older cottages and a convenient array of well-stocked shops. It was a mecca for visitors many of whom wished to capture its beauty in charcoal, pencil or paint. Naturally, Tilling had a town-crier.

It was generally recognised that no true Tillingite was ever really happy away from her town; foreigners were very queer untrustworthy people and, if you did not like the food, it was impossible to engage another cook for an hotel of which you were not the proprietor.   
Lucia decided it was far better, while her own energies still bubbled within her, to conquer this fresh world of Tilling than to smoulder at Riseholme. Her work there was done, whereas here, as this week of influenza testified, there was a very great deal to do. Elizabeth Mapp was still in action and capable of delivering broadsides; innumerable crises might still arise, volcanoes smoked, thunder-clouds threatened, there were hostile and malignant forces to be thwarted. She had never been better occupied and diverted, the place suited her, and it bristled with opportunities.     
Having just watched the Padre playing an animated game of golf with Major Benjy, Georgie Pillson cried enthusiastically, "That's the best of Tilling. There's always something exciting going on. If it isn't one thing it's another, and very often both!"      
Tilling 23 ~ the telephone number of the Padre, the Rev Kenneth Bartlett and his wife, Evie

Tilling 67 ~ Miss Mapp's telephone number at Mallards.

Tilling 76 ~ the telephone number of Suntrap leased by Lady Deal.

Tilling Cricket Club ~ Brother's Georgie and Per on the committee of Tilling's Cricket club invited Lucia and Georgie to view a game at the cricket ground. Lucia offered to make a donation sufficient to level and relay the ground and was subsequently nominated and unanimously elected as President of the club

Tilling Football Club ~ since the football club used the same ground and benefited from what the Hastings Chronicle described as a munificent gift from Mrs Pillson of Mallards House, Tilling, the football club also elected Lucia as their President. Naturally such press coverage caused much distress and irritation to Mrs Mapp-Flint, who remarked sarcastically, "I'm not the least surprised, I suspected something of the sort. Nor shall I be surprised if she plays football for Tilling in the winter. Shorts and a jersey of Tilling colours. Probably that hat...."   
Tilling musical face, the ~ when Lucia and Georgie were practising a duet of "deevy Beethoven's fifth symphony (Fate knocking on the door)" they were interrupted by Elizabeth Mapp-Flint canvassing for the local election. Begging to listen, Mrs Mapp-Flint sank into a chair by the fire and assumed the Tilling musical face (Lucia's patent), smiling wistfully, gazing at the ceiling, and supporting her chin on her hand, as was the correct attitude for slow movements. After the inordinately lengthy performance, she said,"Lovely! Bach was always a favourite composer of mine!"

Tilling Working Club ~ worthy organisation established by Miss Mapp engaged in patriotic good works such as knitting and bandage-rolling. Unlike Mrs Poppit, its founder and organiser, Miss Mapp was not insulted for her more discreet good works by the award of an MBE - or any other decoration.

"Time is money"  ~  a small group of neighbours in Riseholme was prepared to work hard to establish their new Museum,"They were quite willing to devote practically the whole of their time to it, for Riseholme was one of those happy places  where the proverb that Time is money was a flat fallacy, for nobody had ever earned a penny with it."    

This was initially true but was to change when income from visitors mounted up during the summer and certainly later when it came to the division of the insurance proceeds following the fire, which sadly destroyed the museum.

As well as being proverbial, "Time is money" was a phrase used by Benjamin Franklin in "Advice to a Young Tradesman, Written by an Old One."   

Tinkling cymbal  ~  Major Flint and Captain Puffin were engaging in a bout of mutual recrimination over the responsibility for their drunken confrontation with Miss Mapp in the street on the previous evening. Extremely vexed, Major Flint was on the brink of contrite apology, whilst Captain Puffin was much more "gung-ho" and not yet prepared to proffer any olive branch to their much-offended Guardian Angel, Old Mappy.  "Puffin's brazen optimism was but a tinkling cymbal and the Major did not feel like tinkling at all. He but snorted and glowered , revolving in his mind how to square Miss Mapp. "     
Here Benson has quoted again from the Bible, 1 Corinthians, 13:1, where Paul says : "Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal."   Like St Paul, Benson was suggesting that Puffin's sound and fury signified little. And so it turned out, for shortly after Major Flint, Puffin also endured making an apology to Miss Mapp, who remorselessly extracted utmost humiliation from the process and in doing so demonstrated neither mercy nor charity.
Tiptree or Tipsipoozie ~ lean Irish terrier of Hermy and Ursy Pillson. Boisterous like his mistresses and very fond of jam - and marmalade. Not so well-disposed towards his timid host Georgie Pillson, who hated dogs at any time, tohugh he never hated one as much as Tipsopoozie who he considered  "an abominable hound". Tiptree was very respectful towards his formidable parlour maid, Foljambe who brooked no nonsense from the unruly canine.  

Tishbites ~ for the year preceding Lucia's purchase of "Grebe", Contract bridge had waged a deadly war in Tilling with Auction, but the latter like the Tishbites in King David's campaigns, had been exterminated, since contract gave so much more scope for for violent differences of opinion about honour tricks and declarations and doublings and strong twos and takings out, which all added spleen and savagery to the game.

The accomplishments of the forty year reign of King David are undeniable. After a long period of losing conflict, the Hebrews defeated the Philistines under his brilliant generalship and his his military campaigns went on to create a Hebrew empire.

The word "Tishbite" seems to have been subject to various interpretations amongst scholars, including to refer to Elijah (the Tishbite of Tishbe in Gilead) and to mean "stranger." The Jewish historian Josephus supposes that Tishbe was some place in the land of Gilead. Others identified it with el-Ishtib, 22 miles due south of the sea of Galilee.

Wherever its precise location, its occupants seem to have been comprehensively eliminated with a ruthlessness unparalleled outside the bridge tables of Tilling.    
Titania  ~  Miss Mapp was trying hard to be be seen to fascinate and monopolise both Major Benjy and Captain Puffin to the exclusion of the other ladies present during the refreshments at the bridge tea hosted by Isabel Poppit, whilst her mother Susan was being invested with her MBE by the King in London. The Queen was "so pleased."  Conversation turned to their respective activities earlier that day. Major Benjy confirmed that the gentlemen had played golf,  but, "we finished at the fourteenth hole, and hurried back to more congenial society. And what have you done today? Fairy errands I'll be bound. Titania! Ha!"  
Major Benjy often referred to the ladies of Tilling - and indeed the fair sex generally - as, "fairies."  Miss Mapp was therefore naturally his Titania,  who was queen of the fairies and wife of Oberon in Shakespeare's play, "A Midsummer Night's Dream."  It has been suggested  that Shakespeare took the name from Titania (a name given to daughters of Titans) in Ovid's "Metamorphoses."    See Pyramus and Thisbe.
Titum ~ the second echelon of Riseholme's dress code which indicated a moderately smart party. At dinner, Titum for gentlemen entailed black tie and a short coat (see Hitum and Scrub)

Mrs Titus W. Trout ~ American socialite reported in an American fashion paper to have worn a particularly fetching tea gown; it was described as kingfisher blue and had lumps and wedges of lace around the edge of the skirt and orange chiffon around the neck. The dress proved to become a bone of massive contention between  Miss Mapp and Miss Plaistow - to the extent that a dress can become a bone of any kind.

Todd's News ~ a new popular twopenny newspaper in a yellow cover which carried a report of the trial and conviction of fraudulent psychic medium Marie Lowenstein, also known as Princess Popoffski, who had been engaged by Daisy Quantock.

Tom Tiddler's Ground (also Tom Tidler's Ground and Tommy Tiddler's Ground) ~ when Elizabeth Mapp and Diva Plaistow were standing in the High Street absorbed in debating the pointed beard newly sported by Georgie Pillson, a Sinaitic trumpet blast from the Royce of Susan Wyse made them both leap to the pavement, as if playing Tom Tiddler's Ground. In this ancient children's game, one player stands on a heap of stones or other handy material whilst the others seek to rush onto the heap and capture it. The game lives on in variants such as tag and has become a euphemism for having an uncertain status.  
"Too ill-advised,  too sudden"  ~  when Lucia returned from London to Riseholme, Daisy Quantock had written to her at length telling her of her new Guru. She had written to Lucia in all sincerity, hoping that she would extend the hospitality of her garden parties to the Guru, but now the very warmth of Lucia's reply caused her to suspect this ulterior motive. She correctly feared Lucia intended to annex the Guru and run him herself, as her August stunt. She had been too precipitate, too rash,' too ill advised, too sudden ' as Lucia would say."  
Here Daisy is quoting Lucia's oft-repeated quotation from Shakespeare's  "Romeo and Juliet, "Act 2,Scene ii, when Juliet says:

Well, do not swear. Although I joy in thee,
 I have no joy of this contract tonight:
 It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden;
 Too like the lightning, which doth cease to be
 Ere one can say "It lightens." Sweet, good night!
 This bud of love, by summer's ripening breath,
 May prove a beauteous flower when next we meet.  
Toppington, Old, Mr. ~ mentioned by Mrs Boucher (formerly Weston) at some length in conversation with Georgie in Riseholme when the topic was Pepino and Lucia's expectation following the death of wealthy Aunt Amy.

In this context, Mrs Boucher recalled that when old Mr Toppington died, he left his son or nephew (she couldn't be sure of which) a sum that brought him in just about three thousand pounds a year (which it was understood was likely to pass to Pepino from his late aunt) and he "was considered a very rich man". Mrs Boucher called it "an immense fortune". She went on to explain that Mr Toppinton had the house just beyond the church at Scroby Windham, where her father was rector and he built the new wing with the billiard room. At this point Georgie was relieved to extricate himself by conveying Olga Braceley's invitation to Jacob and Jane to lunch during her impending visit.

Toppington, Young, Mr. ~ according to Mrs Boucher, the son of Old Mr Toppington. Married the niece of the man who invented laughing gas.

Torcello ~ when expounding to Georgie the merits of a life of Antonio Caporelli, Lucia remarked that she could "smell the salt tide creeping up over the lagoon and see the campanile of dear Torcello."

Torcello is an island at the northern end of the Venetian Lagoon, considered the oldest continuously populated region of Venice. Following the recycling of building materials, many former palazzi, parishes and cloisters have almost disappeared, but remaining medieval structures include the Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, the Church of Santa Fosca, the Palazzos dell'Archivio and del Consiglio and the famous Devil's Bridge.    
Tower of Babel ~  the first bridge party at "Mallards" following the Mapp-Flint nuptials had seen very spirited and enjoyable play, even by the robust standards of Tilling. "After a phrase or two in French from Elizabeth , in Italian from Lucia, in Scotch and Irish from the Padre, so that the threshold of "Mallards" resembled the Tower of Babel, Diva and Lucia went briskly down towards the High Street, both eager for a communing about the balance of the matrimonial equation...."  
According to the Book of Genesis  11:1-9, the Tower of Babel was an enormous tower built on the plain of Shinar.  After the Great Flood a united humanity spoke a single language and migrated from the east to Shinar where they resolved to build a city with a tower. God, it seems, felt this stairway to heaven would only lead the people away from Him and accordingly scattered them upon the face of the Earth and confused their languages ..and they left off building the city, which was called Babel,  "because God there confounded the language of all the Earth." The Tower of Babel had been associated with known structures, such as the Etemenanki (a ziggurat dedicated to Marduk by Nabopolassar) and the Great Ziggurat of Babylon (demolished by Alexander the Great.) Despite its many undeniably appealing quaintnesses, neither the Tower of Babel of any other ziggurat appears to have been associated with any other structures in Tilling.

Town-crier ~ on their first visit to Tilling, Lucia and Georgie were pleased to note the town boasted a town-crier in a blue frock-coat in the High Street ringing a bell and proclaiming that the water supply would be cut off that day from twelve noon until three in the afternoon. He was also engaged to ring his bell at Lucia's garden fete in aid of Tilling hospital during her Summer's lease of "Mallards." At the time of Quaint Irene's public demonstration in favour of Lucia ("friend of the poor") and against Elizabeth Mapp-Flint ("foe of the said poor"), the Town Crier had influenza.     
Toxins  ~ when Daisy Quantock was enthusiastically following the tenets of "The Uric Acid Monthly," she came to the shattering conclusion that her buxom frame consisted almost entrirely of waste products which must be eliminated. For a greedy man (such as Robert Quantock) the situation was frankly intolerable, for when he continued his ordinary diet (this was before the cursed advent of the Christian Science cook) she kept pointing to his well-furnished plate and told him that every atom of that beef or mutton and potatoes turned from the moment he swallowed it into chromagens and toxins, and that his apparent appetite was merely the result of fermentation.  
First designated as such by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849-1919), a toxin (from the Greek: toxicon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells and organisms.The term excludes man-made substances created by artificial processes.  See chromagens.

Toy shop ~ Mr Dabnet's toy shop was located in Tilling's High Street. Miss Mapp purchased from the toyshop a pleasant little Union Jack with a short stick attached to it. Although she told Mr Dabnet very distinctly that it was a present for her nephew, she intended to conceal it in her parasol and wave it patriotically at the Prince of Wales as and when he arrived at Tilling station.

Later Lucia purchased from the toyshop a simple skipping rope which she used in her callisthenics in the secret garden of "Mallards" - including one memorable session towards the end of her feigned bout of influenza during the visit to Tilling of Contessa Amelia di Faraglione, which was spied upon by Miss Mapp from the nearby church tower. See Mr Dabnet. 

Tracing ~ sketching and painting were popular pastimes amongst the elite of Tilling which hosted summer and latterly winter exhibitions to display the efforts of certain local artists.

The range of talent and approach varied. Georgie Pillson was a skillful and painstaking draughtsman well able to cope with the technical demands of interiors and the architectural exteriors with which Tilling quaintly abounded.

Elizabeth Mapp, on the other hand, appears to have been less skilled and often chose to depict softer and less demanding subjects such as local land or seascapes, particularly at dawn or dusk when a more impressionistic and less "accurate" approach could be employed.

When the subject matter meant that straight lines and the laws of perspective simply could not be avoided Miss Mapp was known covertly to rely upon outlines traced from pictures.

Trader's Arms ~ public house and hotel in Tilling. Lucia and Georgie lodged there in adjoining and very separate bedrooms on their first visit to Tilling.

Trains ~ both Riseholme and Tilling boasted their own railway stations with good connections to London.

The opening of "Queen Lucia" sees Lucia arrive from London on the 12.26. Subsequently, Hermione and Ursula Pillson's lean Irish terrier, Tiptree arrived at Riseholme in the guard's van with their luggage whilst Hermy and Ursy cycled down from town for a lark.

Following her visit to Daisy Quantock, medium Princess Popoffski returned to London on the 11.00 a.m. express.

In "Lucia in London," during the interval of the first performance of "Lucretia", Lucia inquired  if Georgie intended to go back to Riseholme by the midnight train. Georgie was pleased to confirm that he would not since he was staying with Olga Bracely.

Later the Lucas's servants and luggage travelled from London to Riseholme on the 3.20 whilst Lucia and Pepino motored down from town. The fast train arrived from London at 4.30 that afternoon.

Princess Isabel returned to London from her weekend in Riseholme on the 10.30, which stopped at every station and crawled in between.

Tilling was equally well served with Major Benjy and Captain Puffin both aiming to catch the slow train to London which started at 6.30 a.m.to avoid their impending duel.

When considering the likely time of arrival in Tilling on Saturday afternoon of the train to bring the Prince of Wales in time for tea at nearby Ardingly Park, the options appeared to be the 4.15 and 6.45. It subsequently transpired that His Royal Highness had arrived in Tilling earlier at one 'o clock.

Such was the colossal success of the Elizabethan Pageant in Riseholme that special trians were run for attendees from Worcester, Gloucester and Birmingham.

Novelist Susan Leg (Rudolph da Vinci) was scheduled to arrive in Tilling on the 3.25 train to begin her summer lease of "Grebe" from the Mapp-Flints.   
Treasure trove  ~  when Lucia returned from London to Riseholme, she chose to walk from the station to "The Hurst.""Something of the consciousness of her sovereignty was in her mind, as she turned the last hot corner of the road and came in sight of the village street that constituted her kingdom. Indeed, it belonged to her, as treasure trove belongs to the Crown..."   
Any articles, such as coins, jewels or bullion found hidden in the earth or elsewhere of unknown ownership become the property of the Crown. The term has expanded to relate to anything that is discovered that is of value.   
Tristan und Isolde ~ when Lucia and Georgie were practising the slow movement of  "The Moonlight Sonata"  in Tilling church in readiness for their performance in the recital forming part of the service of dedication of the organ, newly refurbished at Lucia's expense. Lucia picked up one of the cor anglais pipes and blew through it, saying, " A lovely tone. It reminds me of the last act of Tristan, does it not, where the shepherd boy goes on playing the cor anglais forever and ever."   
Composed between 1856 and 1859, "Tristan und Isolde" is a an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Strassburg. Inspired by Wagner's affair with Mathilde Wesendock and the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer, it premiered in Munich in 1865 and profoundly influenced composers ranging from Mahler to Schoenberg.  

In the third act, as Tristan lies apparently lifeless under a huge linden tree, with faithful Kurwenal bending over him, a shepherd is heard piping a strain, whose plaintive notes harmonize exquisitely with the sad and desolate scene. The Lay of Sorrow he pipes is mournful and beautiful with the charming simplicity of a folk song: its plaintive notes cling like ivy to the grey and crumbling ruins of love and joy. See Richard Wagner, Cor anglais.

Troppo caldo  ~  Lucia and Daisy Quantock were discussing arrangements regarding the Guru's continued stay in Riseholme. As ever, Lucia was more or less bending Daisy to her will and effectively annexing the Guru to "run him" as her August stunt. Mrs Quantock still impotently rebelling, resorted to the most dire weapon in her armoury, namely sarcasm..... Lucia had a deadlier weapon than sarcasm, which was the apparent unconsciousness of there having been any. For it is no use plunging a dagger into your enemy's heart if it produces no effect whatsoever on him.

As Lucia proceeded remorselesly to get her way, she ofered  to trot away to see the Guru. Lucia told Daisy "Sit quiet in the shade. As you know, I am  a real salamander, the sun is never troppo caldo for me."

Lucia's term from her beginner's Italian  phrase book -  "troppo caldo" - meant "too hot."

"True Path "  ~ when Daisy Quantock first met her Guru, she wrote to Lucia explaining"Fancy! I don't even know his name, and his religion forbids him to tell it me.  He is just my Guru, my guide, and he is going to be with me as long as he knows I need him to show me the True Path." 

The Guru spent the next several weeks teaching Guruism or Yoga to Daisy Quantock and a good many of her neighbours in Riseholme, including Lucia, Peppino and Georgie Pillson. "The True Path," it appears, is a general term covering teachings of a preferred way of life or sprituality, claimed by most if not all religions. When it subsequently transpired that the Guru was a bibulous curry cook from Bedford Street in London and a thief, the only path in question appeared to lead right up the gardens appurtenant to the homes of most of the leading citizens of Riseholme.

"True Statement of Being"  ~  one of Daisy Quantock's many enthusiasms was her faith in Christian Science, which preceded Guruism but followed Uric Acid. Phillip Lucas reported to his wife Lucia that latterly Mrs Quantock had shown "signs of being a little off  with Christian Science. She had a cold, and though she recited the "True Statement of Being" just as frequently as before, her cold got no better."   
When Daisy's enthusiam was at its zenith,  she brightly discoursed to her husband on the new creed and asked him to recite with her the "True Statement of Being" and so it remained until Christian Science joined the Uric Acid fad in the limbo of her discarded beliefs.  

It appears Benson is referring to what is normally  referred to as "The Scientific Statement of Being" devised by Mary Baker Eddy which every Christian Scientist should know. It was set out in her book "Science and Health", the religion's central text and developed in various forms, which included in 1907 the following version:  
There is no life,truth, intelligence, nor substance in matter. All is infinite Mind and its infinite manifestation, for God is All-in-all. Spirit is immortal Truth; matter is mortal error. Spirit is the real and eternal; matter is the unreal and temporal. Spirit is God, and man is His image.  

See Daisy Quantock,  Mary Baker Eddy, Christian Science, Uric Acid.   
Trunk calls ~ a telephone call which was not from the local exchange and might even come from a very long distance - such as London - was still an exciting event in Tilling. Trunk calls were always perceived as thrilling; no one trunked over trivialities. Diva Plaistow, for example was shocked when Lucia mentioned that she had telephoned to her broker that morning and interrupted, "What? A trunk call? Half-a-crown isn't it?"  See telephone.

Tsarkoe Selo ~ vegetarian restaurant in London at which Daisy Quantock had first met psychic medium Princess Popoffski.      
Twemlow's  ~  the grocer in Tilling. Supplied provisions to Elizabeth Mapp for her store cupboard, such as large tins of corned beef and tongue.

Twilight sleep ~ as part of her somewhat ill-advised attempts to encourage the entirely inaccurate impression that she was "with child,"  Elizabeth Mapp-Flint spoke to various of her friends of dolls and twilight sleep. Twilight sleep (English translation of the idiomatic Dammerschlaf) is defined as an amnesic condition characterized by insensibilty to pain without loss of consciousness induced by an injection of drugs, especially to relieve the pain of childbirth. The term is also used to refer more generally to modern intraveinous sedation. "Twilight Sleep" was the title of a satirical novel of the Jazz Age by Edith Wharton, first published in 1927. Characters escape the pain, boredom and emptiness of life through whatever form of twilight sleep they can procure: sex, drugs,work, money, infatuation with the occult and spiritual healing.    See "That"

Twistevant's ~ greengrocer's and stores in Tilling. The proprietor, Mr Twistevant was a Town Councillor and owned many of the slum dwellings in Tilling - eight of which were condemned as insanitary in a report by the Town Surveyor and recommended for demolition.  
Lucia used Mr Twistevant's son to illustrate the perils of gambling: lately married and with a baby on the way, he had been backing horses and was in debt with his last quarter's rent unpaid. Lucia considered that this was all the result of gambling. Georgie did not see how the baby was the result of gambling - unless he bet he wouldn't have one.     
"Tyger, tyger, burning bright."  ~ see Blake.    
Tyro ~ when Elizabeth Mapp was surveying the street from her window in the garden room of "Mallards,"she noted the journey of Lucia's motor car. When it turned into Porpoise Street naturally there was no telling for certain what happened there, for it was out of sight, but a tyro could conjecture that it had business with the Wyse's even if he had been so deaf as not to hear the clanging of the front door bell. When, after stopping at Major Benjy's, Cadman got down and delivered a note, the tyro could conjecture by this time that the invitations were coming from Grebe. A "tyro" is defined as a novice or beginner (from the Latin tiro - recruit.) In matters of observation and deduction, Elizabeth Mapp was the last person to be called a "tyro."

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